Data Act: New rules on who can use and access data generated in the EU across all economic sectors (Reg.2023/2854)

Regulation (EU) 2023/2854 on harmonised rules on fair access to and use of data and amending Regulation (EU) 2017/2394 and Directive (EU) 2020/1828, adopted on 13 December 2023, introduces new rules on who can use and access data generated in the European Union (EU) across all economic sectors. This is known as the Data Act.

The new Regulation lays down harmonised rules, inter alia, on:

(a) the making available of product data and related service data to the user of the connected product or related service;
(b) the making available of data by data holders to data recipients;
(c) the making available of data by data holders to public sector bodies, the Commission, the European Central Bank and Union bodies, where there is an exceptional need for those data for the performance of a specific task carried out in the public interest;
(d) facilitating switching between data processing services;
(e) introducing safeguards against unlawful third-party access to non-personal data; and
(f) the development of interoperability standards for data to be accessed, transferred and used.

This Regulation covers personal and non-personal data.

Regulation (EU) 2023/2854 ensures that users of a connected product or related service in the Union can access, in a timely manner, the data generated by the use of that connected product or related service and that those users can use the data, including by sharing them with third parties of their choice. It imposes the obligation on data holders to make data available to users and third parties of the user’s choice in certain circumstances. It also ensures that data holders make data available to data recipients in the Union under fair, reasonable and non-discriminatory terms and conditions and in a transparent manner. Private law rules are key in the overall framework for data sharing.

Therefore, this Regulation adapts rules of contract law and prevents the exploitation of contractual imbalances that hinder fair access to and use of data.

This Regulation also ensures that data holders make available to public sector bodies, the Commission, the European Central Bank or Union bodies, where there is an exceptional need, the data that are necessary for the performance of a specific task carried out in the public interest.

In addition, this Regulation seeks to facilitate switching between data processing services and to enhance the interoperability of data and of data sharing mechanisms and services in the Union. This Regulation should not be interpreted as recognising or conferring any new right on data holders to use data generated by the use of a connected product or related service.

Regulation (EU) 2023/2854  shall apply from 12 September 2025.

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